A blistering cameo from Renegades youngster Mackenzie Harvey (47 from 21) hurtled the home side to their target of 159 with two balls to spare.
He and partner Beau Webster piled on 63 runs off 25 deliveries for the sixth wicket to pull off a miraculous victory.
Late hitting from Larkin in the Stars' innings, who plundered 61 from 47 balls after a patient start, saw the Stars post a competitive total of 6/158.
In response the Renegades were behind the eight-ball early, managing 17 runs from the powerplay as Coulter-Nile started strongly.
Playing in his first game since late December, the quick dismissed opener Shaun Marsh with a magnificent delivery that clipped the top of his off-stump.
The Stars looked to have control of the game when Coulter-Nile took the wicket of Prestwidge to see the Renegades stumble to 5/97, but from there they came from the clouds to even the ledger in the Melbourne Derby stakes.
SLOW AND STEADY WINS THE RACE
Arriving at the crease three overs in, Larkin brought a sense of calm to an innings where wickets fell at regular intervals.
He methodically worked the ball around, reaching 28 from 35 deliveries before he accelerated.
From his next 10 balls he hammered 33 runs, playing a pivotal role at the death as the Stars scored 39 off the final three overs.
His unbeaten knock of 61 - top-scoring for the match - continued his formidable run of form following his score of 43 against the Renegades on Sunday.
NCN SNARES THREE ON RETURN
Coulter-Nile, who had been sidelined for the past three weeks with a calf complaint, snared three wickets in his return game.
The first wicket was a gem of a delivery, clipping the top of Shaun Marsh’s off stump with a cutter straight out of a bowling textbook.
He followed it up with the wickets of set batsman Jake Fraser-McGurk and Jack Prestwidge, before the Renegades got a hold of him late in the piece.
STOIN GETS STARS GOING
As a team the Stars found the going tough at the start of their innings as the Renegades put the clamps on, starting with a maiden over to begin the innings from paceman Josh Lalor.
But Stoinis was able to consistently find the middle of the bat, striking a boundary with the first ball he faced.
The powerful opener hit six boundaries in all on his way to 37, helping dig the Stars out of a hole in the early stages.
Stoinis also played a part with the ball, snagging the key wicket of Sam Harper and finishing with 1/22 from 3 overs.